Landing Page - System-on-Flex
© Fraunhofer IZM

The research group System on Flex at Fraunhofer IZM focuses on advancing the fields of flexible hybrid electronics, stretchable electronics and electronic textiles (smart textiles). The goal is developing innovative solutions for various applications. The group focuses on developing scalable manufacturing processes for flexible, stretchable and textile electronic systems. This includes prototyping novel concepts and transitioning them into manufacturing-ready solutions, thereby enabling the production of flexible electronic systems on a larger scale.

FHE describes electronic systems that can conform to different shapes and surfaces and combine components and structures realized using different technologies. This involves design, development and fabrication of flexible circuit boards, interconnects, sensors and components using novel materials and manufacturing techniques.

Another key objective is to enhance the reliability and durability of flexible electronic systems. This involves conducting research to understand the mechanical and electrical properties as well as failure mechanisms of flexible electronics and developing techniques to mitigate issues like fatigue, delamination, and failure under mechanical stress.

The research group aims to provide application-oriented solutions by collaborating with industrial partners and addressing specific challenges in sectors like automotive, healthcare/medical, consumer electronics, defence and smart packaging. The objective is to develop electronic systems tailored to the specific requirements of these industries.

Another important goal is to foster innovation and knowledge transfer by actively participating in collaborative projects, organizing workshops, and publishing research papers. The objective is to contribute to the advancement of the field of flexible hybrid electronics, stretchable electronics and electronic textiles. SoF shares expertise with the scientific community and industry stakeholders.

Electronic Textiles

© Patrick Klein Meuleman for Malou Beemer, modified by Fraunhofer IZM

Compared to purely textile products, electronic textiles (e-textiles) offer added functionality through integrated electronic components. At yarn, textile or product level, integrated circuits enable e-textiles to e.g., heat or cool, create energy, provide sensor and actuator function, collect data or warn their users.

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Conformable Electronics

Rigid and flexible printed circuit boards are well-established and widely used circuit carriers for electronic assemblies. New product concepts require electronic systems that can be applied or integrated onto or into three-dimensionally shaped freeform surfaces: known as Conformable Electronics.

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Stretchable Electronics

Stretchable electronics are increasingly gaining importance in various fields. They find applications in wearables such as smartwatches, smart rings, fitness trackers, and smart clothing. These devices can be comfortably worn on the body without restricting movement, seamlessly integrating into everyday life. Stretchable solar cells and batteries can be used for energy generation and storage.

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NCA-Bonding interconnection process for E-Textiles

© Fraunhofer IZM

Many E-Textile applications – like systems to monitor vital signs or log ergonomic data, heating pads, lighting, or innovative human-machine-interfaces – require sensors and electronic components integrated into the fabric itself. This combination of electrical components and soft textile materials and the resulting requirements concerning comfort, washability, design, reliability, or signal stability makes the integration process a complex challenge. Interconnecting electronic modules is especially demanding.

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E-Textile Washability

Among the most important requirements for garments with integrated electronics – but also for e-textiles from other fields – is their washability. For a textile typical usability, which is indispensable for product acceptance, e-textiles have to be clean- and washable in case of soiling. Especially for medical, sports, care or protective purposes – all key applications for e-textiles – hygiene requirements make the ability to properly clean a product a must.

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Sensor bracelet measures a range of environmental forces to improve the treatment of lung diseases


Tiny particulates or noxious gases: From the day they are born, all people are exposed to a range of environmental forces. These forces constitute the exposome and affect the health and wellbeing of people around the world. A European research project has been set up to explore how the exposome affects the course of lung diseases.

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© Adobe Stock / Basel Adams

Art-Tech Collaborations

Art and design are inseparably interwoven with the textile world. For e-textiles at the intersection of textiles and electronics, creative aspects play an equally important role. That is why we have been cooperating with artists and designers in co-creative processes for more than 20 years. Through new impulses and changing perspectives, such collaborations hold enormous potential for innovation.

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Constructing Connectivity by Jessica Smarsch
© Jessica Smarsch


In the interdisciplinary project SoMaRo, a unique robot gripping technology based on soft, adaptively controllable soft kinematics with integrated soft actuators, sensors and electronics based on novel smart materials is developed in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institutes IPK, ISC and IAP. which can be specifically deformed using software control with electric fields. Intuitive-sensitive grippers will be realized.

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Projekt SoMaRo
© Fraunhofer IZM

F2E – Free Form Electronics

In this project, at Fraunhofer IZM, we developed fully in-line compatible SMT processes based on thermoplastic substrates, printing and adhesive bonding. The focus was on the development of robust assembly and interconnection technology for electronic components that can withstand the high thermal and mechanical stresses that occur in thermoforming and injection molding technology.

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F2E – Free Form Electronics
© Fraunhofer IZM


Newlife has received funding from the KDT Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 101095792. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon Europe research and innovation programme and Finland, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. This project has received funding from the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI).

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The treatment of chronic diseases does not necessarily have to be accompanied by costly medications and undesirable side effects. Neuromodulation can be used to treat diseases such as chronic headaches, asthma or Parkinson's disease. In order to realize this project, researchers at Fraunhofer IZM are developing a new generation of microimplants in the Europe-wide Moore4Medical project.

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Technologiedemonstrator: in TPU eingebetteter ASIC
© Fraunhofer IZM


SMART PATCHES, which can be used for vital signs monitoring, are now available on the market and are used for a variety of useful clinical applications. This has already led to a paradigm shift in the diagnosis of multiple diseases - e.g. atrial fibrillation.

As part of the project APPLAUSE, a new type of patch architecture was implemented in cooperation with the partners and at the same time new integration technologies were examined and developed in order to eliminate the previous limitations.

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© Fraunhofer IZM | Volker Mai

Sensor Patches as Fitness Trackers


The Eurostars project XPatch is developing a flexible sensor system that can track biochemical information in real time. The international consortium is working on a new generation of diagnostic patches that monitor the sweat of high performance athletes for second-by-second medical information about their cardiovascular fitness. As part of the project, Fraunhofer IZM is working on the energy supply, communication, and system integration concepts for the flexible and autonomous fitness monitor.

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Fraunhofer IZM | Volker Mai
© Fraunhofer IZM | Volker Mai

Research Labs for E-Textiles

With the TexLab and the Textile Prototyping Lab (TPL), the Fraunhofer IZM offers outstanding resources, highly qualified staff, years of experience and a multitude of tools to advance and support the development of innovative e-textile applications.

Several state-of the art lamination presses allow for the seamless integration of electronic modules into textiles. With an industrial embroidery machine including TFP capability, a variety of conductive yarns and wires can be directly sewn onto textiles to realize complex electronic circuitry. Thermoplastic materials can be joined using our ultrasonic spot and rotary welding machines.

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Textile Prototyping Lab
© Textile Prototyping Lab



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